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Zenith CAPTAIN WINSOR
TOP
Zenith CAPTAIN WINSOR
RM94,646
Seller
LUXE WARE (HK) LIMITED
79
HK
Patek Philippe Perpetual Calendar Rose Gold Oro Rosa
TOP
Patek Philippe Perpetual Calendar Rose Gold Oro Rosa
RM242,996
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WWatch SA
27
IT
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TOP
Baume & Mercier automatic chronograph
RM16,033
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i monili di Gaspare Aprile srl
10
IT
Breguet Classique La Musical 7800BB/11/9YV
TOP
Breguet Classique La Musical 7800BB/11/9YV
RM254,200
Free shipping
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Watches & Jewellery of Bond Street Ltd
235
UK
Richard Mille RM 011 03 Rose Gold TI
TOP
Richard Mille RM 011 03 Rose Gold TI
RM969,451
Free shipping
Seller
Express Watches
6
US
Longines legend diver
Longines legend diver
RM5,500
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Private Seller
MY
Ulysse Nardin Maxi Marine Diver Black sea Chrono
TOP
Ulysse Nardin Maxi Marine Diver Black sea Chrono
RM43,253
Seller
CANTELI JOYEROS SL
13
ES
Zenith PILOT AERONEF 48 MM TYPE XX TOURBILLON
TOP
Zenith PILOT AERONEF 48 MM TYPE XX TOURBILLON
RM195,952
Seller
ZEGG & CERLATI
53
MC
Rolex Oyster Perpetual 36 [NEW] Multiple Dials
Rolex Oyster Perpetual 36 [NEW] Multiple Dials
RM17,700
Seller
Swiss Connection Watches Pte Ltd
MY
Tudor HERITAGE BLACK BAY DARK 79230DK
TOP
Tudor HERITAGE BLACK BAY DARK 79230DK
RM14,526
Free shipping
Seller
Plus Watch - Luxury Watches
2988
IT
Rolex Sea-Dweller Deepsea
Rolex Sea-Dweller Deepsea
RM54,853
Seller
Private Seller
MY
TAG Heuer Aquaracer Calibre 16 500M
TAG Heuer Aquaracer Calibre 16 500M
RM6,500
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Private Seller
MY
Speake-Marin Spirit Mk 2 / Mk.II
Speake-Marin Spirit Mk 2 / Mk.II
RM18,546
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph
RM450,000
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Oris Flight Timer
Oris Flight Timer
RM3,800
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Montblanc Star Steel Collection 39mm
Montblanc Star Steel Collection 39mm
RM6,323
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Chanel White Ceramic Automatic
Chanel White Ceramic Automatic
RM7,600
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Richard Mille RM 011 Ivory
TOP
Richard Mille RM 011 Ivory
RM843,000
Free shipping
Seller
Express Watches
6
US
Frederique Constant Manufacture Classic Moonphase [ALMOST NEW]
Frederique Constant Manufacture Classic Moonphase [ALMOST NEW]
RM10,538
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Ball DC1028C-S2J-BK
Ball DC1028C-S2J-BK
RM9,500
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Zenith EL PRIMERO CHRONOMASTER 1969
TOP
Zenith EL PRIMERO CHRONOMASTER 1969
RM61,235
Seller
ZEGG & CERLATI
53
MC
Ulysse Nardin Marine Diver  Black Sea Blue Dial
TOP
Ulysse Nardin Marine Diver Black Sea Blue Dial
RM27,945
Seller
CANTELI JOYEROS SL
13
ES
Bell & Ross BR 03-92 Military Ceramic
Bell & Ross BR 03-92 Military Ceramic
RM11,802
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date 18k Gold
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date 18k Gold
RM13,910
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Rolex Yacht-Master 168623 35mm Box & Paper
Rolex Yacht-Master 168623 35mm Box & Paper
RM27,200
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Longines Flagship Heritage 60th Anniversary Limited Edition
Longines Flagship Heritage 60th Anniversary Limited Edition
RM6,350
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Breitling Navitimer World
Breitling Navitimer World
RM18,759
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Tudor Black Bay Fifty Eigth 39mm [New Release]
Tudor Black Bay Fifty Eigth 39mm [New Release]
RM14,100
Seller
Swiss Connection Watches Pte Ltd
MY
Omega Constellation 1966 vintage watch 712 automatic chronometer
TOP
Omega Constellation 1966 vintage watch 712 automatic chronometer
RM5,521
Seller
Fine Auction Club
213
UK
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Chronograph
TOP
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Chronograph
RM77,978
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Zenith EL PRIMERO TOURBILLON
TOP
Zenith EL PRIMERO TOURBILLON
RM153,817
Seller
ZEGG & CERLATI
53
MC
Panerai Radiomir Black Seal 3 Days Automatic
Panerai Radiomir Black Seal 3 Days Automatic
RM24,447
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Ulysse Nardin Marine Chronograph
TOP
Ulysse Nardin Marine Chronograph
RM38,636
Seller
CANTELI JOYEROS SL
13
ES
Breguet Reine de Naples
TOP
Breguet Reine de Naples
RM37,821
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Rado R30180162
TOP
Rado R30180162
RM6,000
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Omega CONSTELLATION OMEGA CO-AXIAL 38 MM ROSE GOLD
TOP
Omega CONSTELLATION OMEGA CO-AXIAL 38 MM ROSE GOLD
RM52,579
Seller
Plus Watch - Luxury Watches
2988
IT
Rolex Datejust II 41mm [2016]
Rolex Datejust II 41mm [2016]
RM25,000
Seller
Swiss Connection Watches Pte Ltd
MY
Rolex GMT Master II NEW 126710 BLRO "Pepsi"
TOP
Rolex GMT Master II NEW 126710 BLRO "Pepsi"
RM77,516
Seller
Filipucci Juweliers
449
NL
Longines Master Collection - Gold/Steel 'Diamonds Collection'
TOP
Longines Master Collection - Gold/Steel 'Diamonds Collection'
RM6,804
Free shipping
Seller
Pawndeluxe
187
NL
Zenith Pilot Type 20 Tourbillon Diamonds
TOP
Zenith Pilot Type 20 Tourbillon Diamonds
RM549,657
Seller
ZEGG & CERLATI
53
MC
Chopard Tycoon Two o Ten Rose Gold With Diamonds
TOP
Chopard Tycoon Two o Ten Rose Gold With Diamonds
RM48,356
Seller
Juwelier Burger, since 2001
761
NL
IWC vintage automatic Cal 854B Stainless Steel 1971
TOP
IWC vintage automatic Cal 854B Stainless Steel 1971
RM6,313
Seller
qualityextra
14
HU
Rolex 14K Yellow Gold DATE Custom Ox Blood Diamond Dial & Bezel
TOP
Rolex 14K Yellow Gold DATE Custom Ox Blood Diamond Dial & Bezel
RM19,368
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
210
US
Rado Diamaster XL Skeleton
TOP
Rado Diamaster XL Skeleton
RM17,000
Seller
Private Seller
MY
Cartier Ballon Bleu De Cartier Watch
TOP
Cartier Ballon Bleu De Cartier Watch
RM28,917
Seller
WatchesofMayfair.com
467
UK
Rolex Lady-Datejust 31 Jubilee [NEW] Multiple Dials
Rolex Lady-Datejust 31 Jubilee [NEW] Multiple Dials
RM24,500
Seller
Swiss Connection Watches Pte Ltd
MY
Rolex GMT Master II BLNR NEW 116710BLNR
TOP
Rolex GMT Master II BLNR NEW 116710BLNR
RM49,814
Seller
Filipucci Juweliers
449
NL
Jaeger-LeCoultre Master GMT Compressor Diving - Box & inhouse...
TOP
Jaeger-LeCoultre Master GMT Compressor Diving - Box & inhouse...
RM25,515
Free shipping
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Pawndeluxe
187
NL
Maurice Lacroix Masterpiece Calendrier Retrograde Automatic
Maurice Lacroix Masterpiece Calendrier Retrograde Automatic
RM11,338
Seller
Collector's Time Gallery
MY
Rolex Ladies TT Oyster Perpetual - Mother Of Pearl Diamond...
TOP
Rolex Ladies TT Oyster Perpetual - Mother Of Pearl Diamond...
RM13,467
Free shipping
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LovinTyme
98
US
Breguet Classique Automatico Brillantes
TOP
Breguet Classique Automatico Brillantes
RM62,936
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Fernando Monge SA
131
ES
Rolex 36mm SS DATEUST Matte Black Dial Leather Strap w/ Rolex Box
TOP
Rolex 36mm SS DATEUST Matte Black Dial Leather Strap w/ Rolex Box
RM14,732
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Austins Watches Inc.
210
US
Franck Muller Vanguard
Franck Muller Vanguard
RM48,000
Seller
Swiss Hour Timepiece
MY
Jaeger-LeCoultre Polaris Automatic
TOP
Jaeger-LeCoultre Polaris Automatic
RM32,367
Seller
WatchesofMayfair.com
467
UK
Panerai Luminor 1950 3 Days Titanium [2017] PAM 351
Panerai Luminor 1950 3 Days Titanium [2017] PAM 351
RM22,500
Seller
Swiss Connection Watches Pte Ltd
MY
Girard Perregaux Gyromatic Deep Diver
Girard Perregaux Gyromatic Deep Diver
RM18,125
Seller
S.Song Ltd.
MY
Girard Perregaux 18K Chronograph 24K Gold Rotor Porcelain Dial
TOP
Girard Perregaux 18K Chronograph 24K Gold Rotor Porcelain Dial
RM23,085
Free shipping
Seller
Pawndeluxe
187
NL
Frederique Constant Flyback Chronograph Manufacture
Frederique Constant Flyback Chronograph Manufacture
RM9,231
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Collector's Time Gallery
MY
Rolex Ladies SS Oyster Perpetual - Blue Vignette Diamond Dial...
TOP
Rolex Ladies SS Oyster Perpetual - Blue Vignette Diamond Dial...
RM12,202
Free shipping
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LovinTyme
98
US
JeanRichard Paramount Pack 3 watches
TOP
JeanRichard Paramount Pack 3 watches
RM91,124
Seller
Fernando Monge SA
131
ES
Montblanc Gabiddu Grand Chronographe Régulateur
TOP
Montblanc Gabiddu Grand Chronographe Régulateur
RM190,951
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Taleda
400
CH
Hublot Big Bang King
Hublot Big Bang King
RM88,800
Seller
Swiss Hour Timepiece
MY
Jaeger-LeCoultre Polaris Chronograph 42 mm
TOP
Jaeger-LeCoultre Polaris Chronograph 42 mm
RM44,614
Seller
WatchesofMayfair.com
467
UK
Tudor Heritage Black Bay Bucherer Blue 79250BB
Tudor Heritage Black Bay Bucherer Blue 79250BB
RM22,000
Seller
Swiss Connection Watches Pte Ltd
MY
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Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Mechanical Timepieces

Automatic watches are powered by the natural motion of your wrist while you wear them. This type of watch has a rich history reaching back to the 18th century. Today, countless brands produce their own automatic calibers for their watches.

Highlights

  • Automatically wound by the natural movements of your arm
  • Environmentally-friendly: No batteries to produce or throw away
  • The Rolex Oyster Perpetual is one of the most famous automatic watches
  • John Harwood is considered the inventor of the automatic wristwatch
  • Automatic watches available in almost every price range

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Timepieces

Automatic watches fall under the larger umbrella term of mechanical watches. They offer a key advantage over manual timepieces: They wind automatically via the movement of the wearer's arm. An oscillating mass inside the caliber is responsible for winding the spring. Today, this is in most cases a winding rotor. It is flexibly mounted so that gravity pulls it towards the center. When you're wearing the watch and move your wrist, the rotor moves and gives the caliber new energy. Automatic watches don't require batteries, making mechanical watches comparably more environmentally friendly than battery-powered quartz watches.

Automatic watches are available from almost every famous watch manufacturer in all price ranges. Less expensive models are often powered by base calibers made by the ébauche manufacturers ETA, Soprod, or Sellita. Various manufacturers use these calibers in a more or less reworked form in their watches. These calibers even power the watches made by famous brands such as Breitling and TAG Heuer. However, both manufacturers have developed their own in-house movements as well.

Rolex and Patek Philippe are some of the most well-known watch manufacturers. Unlike many other brands, these two Geneva-based manufacturers don't outsource base calibers. Instead, they use their own. For example, Rolex's caliber 3130 is considered very robust, reliable, and precise. These qualities and more make the caliber one of the best automatic movements on the market; it powers Rolex watches such as the Submariner. Since Rolex produces their watches almost entirely in-house, production is costlier. This results in higher prices for automatic watches with in-house movements.

Buying Tips

If you're searching for an automatic watch, the hard part is actually choosing one. Should it be large or small, simple or extravagant, affordable or expensive? The selection is ample for every taste and budget. Pre-owned automatic watches from Citizen, Seiko, or Swatch are available for around 50 euros. These watches often only have three hands for the hours, minutes, and seconds. Some also have a date or even day/date display.

In the price range between 100 and 200 euros, you can find diverse new automatic watches from brands like Seiko or Fossil. Pre-owned watches from long-established manufacturers such as Tissot, Hamilton, or Longines cost up to 500 euros. The situation is similar in the 1,000 euros and under price range, though here you can also find new models from the German brand Marcello C.

In the 1,000 euro price range, you can find pre-owned Omega or Breitling watches. New automatic three-hand watches are available from Oris, Raymond Weil, or Rado.

However, if you're looking for an automatic chronograph, you need to adjust your budget accordingly. A pre-owned automatic chronograph costs at least 500 euros; this applies to watches from brands such as Tissot or Hamilton. New chronographs cost a few hundred euros more, around 800 euros. These watches are often powered by ETA's Valjoux 7750, which is considered one of the most successful automatic chronograph calibers in the world.

If you're searching for a new automatic Rolex, you need to plan on spending at least 3,000 euros. You can purchase the introductory model, Oyster Perpetual, for this price. You can occasionally find pre-owned vintage watches from this Genevan manufacturer for less than 1,000 euros. The Submariner, one of the first and most famous diving watches in the world, is available pre-owned for around 4,100 euros. New, it costs around 5,600 euros. Rolex's chronograph, the Daytona, is available for around 7,500 euros.

The most expensive automatic watches are from brands such as Audemars Piguet and Patek Philippe. These watches are often made of platinum or 18-karat gold and feature countless diamonds on their dial and/or case. At times, these watches are also incredibly expensive as they're rare vintage watches coveted by collectors. Prices over 1 million euros are not too rare when it comes to these watches.

The Technology Behind Automatic Watches

The mainspring of an automatic watch is, as the name suggests, automatically wound by the movement itself. The mainspring is wound, becomes tense, and stores energy. This happens through the natural movements of the wearer's arm when the watch is on his or her wrist. This mechanism eliminates the need to manually wind the mainspring. Instead, an oscillating mass - often the rotor - winds the mainspring. Gravity causes the flexibly mounted rotor to move towards the center and a gear-train transfers the energy from the rotor's movement to the barrel. Viewed from a physics standpoint, the mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy.

There are automatic movements that wind in one or both directions. Bi-directional winding movements have so-called reverser gears. These ensure that the rotor winds the barrel in both directions. Uni-directional winding movements actually wind bidirectionally, but the mainspring is only wound in one direction. Both variants have a reduction gear which converts the fast movements of the rotor into slower movements with more torque. The end of the mainspring is not directly connected to the barrel so that it doesn't snap off when it's fully wound. The outer end of the spring is outfitted with a bridle, which keeps the pressure on the mainspring's outermost coil. When not fully wound, that pressure allows the outer end of the mainspring to be caught in a notch in the barrel wall. Once the spring is fully wound, it moves along to the next notch.

Automatic watches have many advantages: They're comfortable, environmentally-friendly, and usually more precise. This improved precision is due to the mainspring, which is always tense and has a more constant torque than mainsprings in hand-wound calibers. This has a positive effect on the amplitude. The amplitude is the balance wheel's degree of rotation and refers to the wheel's maximum rotation angle between equilibrium and a reversal point.

Technical Details of Automatic Watches

  • The winding rotor winds the mainspring in the barrel
  • Advantages: no manual winding required, environmentally-friendly, more precise
  • Uni-directional and bi-directional winding movements

The Origins of Automatic Watches

Automatic winding is one of the most important and long-lasting innovations in the history of watchmaking and the mechanism is one of the most widespread complications in use today.

Today's automatic watches can trace their origin back to the year 1729. Abraham-Louis Perrelet improved the winding mechanism of pocket watches in the 18th century. A small key was required to wind a movement before this improvement. Since the key was never there when you needed it, winding mechanisms that didn't require a key were in high demand. Perrelet wanted to invent a self-winding pocket watch. In 1770, he introduced his pedometer watch after countless attempts. The watch had an oscillating weight which teetered back and forth as the wearer walked. The motion caused the oscillating weight to tense the mainspring. Perrelet also developed a caliber with a winding rotor which swiveled above the movement. With these innovations, the groundwork for today's automatic watches was laid.

Refined men carried their pocket watches tucked away safely in their jacket, vest, or pants. The timepieces barely moved while in their pockets, which meant that the oscillating mass didn't have enough energy to wind the mainspring. The crown-wind method solved the key-wind problem in the mid-19th century, making the automatic pocket watch superfluous.

The First Automatic Wristwatches

The French watchmaker Léon Leroy was also a pioneer in the development of automatic watches. He presented his first automatic wristwatch in 1922. Some of these watches even had a date display. However, Leroy was far away from being able to mass produce a series.

The British watchmaker John Harwood lead automatic wristwatches to series production. He began working on automatic movements in 1922. Two years later, he patented his work, paving the way for the first series-produced automatic wristwatches.

Rolex's Oyster Perpetual was one of the first automatic wristwatches. Rolex introduced the watch to the market in 1931. It's one of the few early models that has lasted over the years and is still produced today. The principle behind Oyster Perpetual's winding rotor is at the heart of every modern automatic wristwatch.

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